History of the Scene: The beginnings of the IBM-PC Underground
Ever since there has been the ability to store data on a personal
computer and commercial software for sale, there has been the
existence of pirating. Pirating, cracking and even pirate scenes
go all the way back to the late seventies, and maybe even earlier.
By the early eighties some machines (such as the BBC Macro in Europe)
were so riddled with pirates that the programming companies gave up.
They discontinued producing and porting software for the affected
computers because there was simply no money to be made.
This report is designed with the IBM-PC scene in mind.
WHEN DID THE PC SCENE BEGIN?
Of all the many 8bit computers and scenes of the early eighties
(the golden age?) most people will agree that the Commodore 64
was the biggest of them all. The Commodore 64 scene started back
in 1982 (mainly by a lot of young teenagers). While the PC was
released earlier to the public it would be the Commodore 64's
pirate scene which would introduce many of the standards that today
we take as granted. During this time on the PC there were some small
groups with people releasing and cracking, but these cracked programs
usually remained local. The international PC scene did not take off
until 1987. This was when people started to trade software with
cracks over longer distances and overseas which formed the basis
of the now old school BBS scene.
EARLY NFOs AND CRACKTROS
Unfortunately for us the eighties PC scene is one of the lesser
known and least documented. Due to the limitations of the PC at
the time, cracktros were extremely rare (unlike the Commodore 64,
Amiga or Atari ST) and text files to document the releases were
usually never created.
In the eighties many cracks were usually created by individuals
rather then groups (groups being a collection of people who work
under the same name). These individuals would normally leave a
signature in the release to identify themselves as the cracker.
For example on a game's title screen you might see in the bottom
corner "cracked by Lord Blix". By the end of the eighties it was
the groups who were cracking releases rather than just individuals.
And with groups being a more prestigious lot they would sometimes
insert a custom title screen designed especially for that release
(similar to today's installers). Bentley Sidewell Productions,
a famous cracking group of the late eighties would usually use
a CGA picture or animation to show that they cracked the title.
While International Network of Crackers would use a less
captivating ANSI graphic.
It's worth noting that Bentley Sidewell Productions animations
were probably the first cracktros and intros for the PC. So
technically the origins of the PC demo scene goes back to the old
PC cracking scene.
It was the hacking groups of the eighties that first started to
use acronyms to encrypt their names. This was often used to
confuse unwanted people from differentiating the different hacking
groups but it's main benefit was the addreviated typing. Typing
abbreviations is a lot easier then typing the complete group
name. But the standard three letter acronym was not really
considered standard until the PC's emergence in the early nineties
(groups on other computers had up to five or six letter acronyms).
This was due to DOS's limited file naming capability of only being
able to handle eleven characters (eight . three) per file.
When crackers wanted to add last minute notes or information
about their cracks they would include a small text file into the
release. Eventually groups started adding regular text files to
their releases. Information in these files would usually state
a note from the cracker, some information on how to play the game
(keyboard keys etc) and maybe a member listing or some BBS numbers.
It was about this time that the groups started to implement a set
naming format to these text files. This format use an eight letter
abbreviated form of the program title followed by .DOC (short for
document). Other groups decided to replace the .DOC acronym with
one based on their groups name for example SIMCITY.CIA, SIMCITY.INC
or SIMCITY.PTL. Hence the standard group three letter acronym was
To the best of knowledge The Humble Guys in 1990 introduced the now
standard .NFO acronym. One assumes NFO was created to be the three
letter abbreviation for the word information or info. The initial
format was the standard eight letter game title abbreviation followed
by .NFO before it eventually evolved to the now current standard of
The earliest long distance couriers started off under a
different title, Phreakers. Most phreakers were usually involved
primarily in the HPAV (Hacking, Phreaking, Anarchy, Virus) type
scenes with pirating being a second priority. This made the scene
very defragmented and slow, it would take weeks for releases to
be spread continentally. The problem was that not many pirates
knew how to phreak and paying for long distance phone calls was
out of the question. Thankfully in around 1988 a new phreak group
was created. North American Pirate Phreak Alliance (NAP/PA) was
the group and it's goal was to spread the How To's Of Phreaking
to the pirates. Many of the top boards of the time quickly
became affiliations of NAP/PA, which made the information available
to the right people. This information literally helped the scene
become closer and a little more united.
By the early nineties many people had less respect for couriers
compared to that of the crackers, sysops and packagers. This
opinion was usually formed because couriering was not the most
challenging of tasks, almost anyone could do it. It was more of a
matter of how much you were willing to risk or spend rather than
a person's skill. At one point The Humble Guys even named their
couriers, slaves. Couriers would have to log onto The Humble
Guys BBS's as slave 1, slave 2 etc. This caused an uproar in
the scene but at the time The Humble Guys were the big guys
and could generally do what they wanted.
These days pre'ing releases (couriering a release before it's
made public) is common practice, it wasn't so back then. Due to
the limitations in speed and the fact that you had to dial into
each BBS individually, releases took longer to spread. This ended
up coining the one most famous of BBS phrases, "0 day warez".
Zero day warez is when one gets the release on the same day
as it was released, be it from the software company or from a
group. The saying was often used to differentiate the good BBSs
from the others and by suppliers for use on the status of software.
BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS
Many BBSs at this time needed to pay a monthly fee for
their group affiliation (money which usually came from the
user-pay leech acccounts). This money would be used by the
groups in many ways but mainly to obtain software. A broke group
usually had a dry run when it came to releasing. This monthly
fee plus all the extra hardware and phone lines required
a major investment by the system operator. And it was investment
that gave the siteop the respect they required from the BBS users.
There was something about a top ranking sysop, because you
were in their homes (electronically) using their equipment.
They had total control over everything that happened on their
system, including your personal information.
Now, running a BBS that contained illegal software was a risky
business. One because the system was usually based at the
system operator's home and two because there were some companies
that were desperate to stop the flow of the illegal copies of
their programs. These corporations including Microsoft and Novell
worked with local and federal police in attempt to take down
these means of distributing software.
By now you all know about the NET Act in the USA that now makes
it criminal for anyone with a certain amount (dollar value) of
pirated software to be convicted. But you may be wondering how
people were busted before this act was created. Well, the most
common reason would be that the offender was making money from
illegal software (selling CDs or floppies) which would attract
the attention of the police. While the other more harsh way of
being busted was to get a civil case law suit against you. These
were never pretty and usually involved the complete loss of
anything that was computer related from one's house. Civil
suits were brought on by software companies and are covered by a
completely different set of laws to the criminal codes. Because
of this most boards banned Novell releases due to Novell's
semi-successful world wide anti-piracy campaign.
The death of the BBS one could say happened after Park Central
closed down. This was at the time the number one BBS in the
world and was a central link for the scene. It was often used
to prove who won a release race, being the boxing ring and the
referee. But some groups got smart and started avoiding the
BBSs all together and instead decided to spread the release
exclusively over the Internet. This left people a confusing
situation of where there was one group winning the release on
the BBS's and the other winning on the Internet. The final
nail in the coffin for the bulletin board system was the infamous
Cyberstrike campaign of February 1997 where five major BBS's
were busted in a single week. It caused many BBS and some sites
to close shop permanently in the fear of themselves being
the next victims.
The supplying methods for groups in early years were not
too different to today's methods. Store pickups and ordering
directly from the company were the main means for many groups.
The money would usually come from various payments such as
official BBS affiliates. Another more attractive way to supply
was to use insiders who are kind of like corporate saboteurs
for the pirate scene. Insiders obtain the program directly from
the source before it's released to the stores. It saves a lot
of effort on the group's behalf as they don't have to keep
tabs on the program and they avoid the rush to grab it when it
goes to the stores. It also left the crackers more time to
tinker around with the program.
A more creative way to obtain pre'store software was for group
members to pretend they worked for a gaming magazine. The
software companies were usually more than happy to send out
their software if given the correct information. But when the
companies smartened up this option became less viable.
There have been artists for the PC ever since there has been
ASCII and ANSI. But international groups in the way that we
know of today only started in around late 1990. ACID (ANSI
Creators In Demand) were the first of these international
groups, trend setters who originally specialised in ANSI art
and ANSIMation ads. They earned their reputation of being one
of the best in their field by supporting the best pirate boards
of the time. Just like our demo scene the PC art scene emerged
from the pirate scene. Unfortunately this link has long
since been lost with the warez scene art becoming second class.
As the PC gained more acceptance in Europe (an area dominated
by the Amiga and Atari) some members of the bigger Amiga groups
found themselves using or buying these strange PC machines and
needed software. So a long line of Commodore cracking groups
made their way across to the DOStel system, including Fairlight,
Razor 1911 and the merged Tri Star and Red Sector.
The Internet has often been used by the scene for
various reasons but it never became a serious tool until
the early nineties. Little did people know at this time
how much this tool would change the scene, to basically
create a new generation of pirate scene. Bulletin board
systems had always kept the scene secret and underground. A
newbie often found it extremely difficult to gain access
to even a mediocre local board. Most of these people faced
the daunting task of hunting down a system password just
to get the logon prompt and then new user password to even
apply for membership. But the Internet changed all this,
the Internet made everything that was once so hard to obtain
so easy. IRC, email, ftp and webpages all open to Joe public.
And in 1994 they flooded in, drove after drove causing
great despair among the many old schoolers. Many of these
people didn't appreciate their turf being overrun by these
so-called lamers, so they closed their doors. While the
old doors closed new doors opened, newsgroups, top100 web
pages, anonymous ftp and the most infamous of all IRC offer
IRC offer channels where originally started by groups to
offer releases to their friends but when Fate (the
leading Internet courier group in 1995) opened their
channel (#fatefiles) to the public, Joe Lamer couldn't
resist. Many people copied #fatefile's format (+mnst)
and many of these channels failed, especially since
most groups totally disapproved of IRC trading.
While the Internet changed the way the scene communicated
and traded it was the gaming industry's move to the CD Rom
that also helped create the second scene revolution. While
CD Rom titles for the PC have been around since 1989
(Sierra/Dynamix) the scene did not take onto this new medium
until the mid-nineties. And even at this time no one took it
too seriously with many groups creating separate groups for
the CD Rom releases. These seperate groups where usually
created just to release crapware under a different label.
And that is was CD titles where originally considered,
crapware. These crapware groups where kind of like the
IND releases today, though less anonymous.
Originally these crapware/cd-rom groups would release the
whole CD, but it wasn't in ISO format, rather the files were
just copied off the CD. But people were not used to these
large releases and so Hybrid invented the first cd-rip,
where the group would leave out unnecessary parts of the
game. But the rippers still had the mentality of the floppy
disk: the smaller the better was the goal. So many games
where raped to their bare minimum making them pretty boring
to play. Playing some of these raped games was like trying
to watch a special effects Hollywood blockbuster on a black
and white TV with no sound. To add to this many ripped games
were poorly cracked with a great number requiring third party
utilities such has CD emulators (fakecd.exe).
When software publishers started taking advantage of the
space available on a CD Rom most of the main game groups
agreed on a standard disk limit. On July the 6th 1996 five of
these groups formed a pact agreement under the name of Software
Pirates Association (SPA). The SPA's goal was to see the
enforcement of their "rules of engagement". Any release that
broke the SPA rules would be nuked on the affiliated sites.
Eventually the SPA fell prey to internal fights created by
In 1998 the SPA was laid to rest because the groups involved
were simply not following the rules. But soon enough the big
three groups (Class, Razor 1911, and Paradigm)formed a new
organization called The Faction. The faction created a
detailed listing of its rules and they released those rules
to the public. The biggest change was the upping of the disk
limit to 50*2.88 disks (it had been 75*1.44 disks).
While other groups changed to the 2.88 disk format some did
ignore the 50 disk limit and to many people, it just didn't
ISO SCENE (CD IMAGES)
In 1997 the prices of CD writing material became cheaper, this
combined with easier access to high speed internet created a new
niche market. Full versions of games were wanted and so the
ISO scene was created. ISO's are CD images and because they
contain the complete CD image they are extremely big. Just
like the CD scene three years earlier some of the bigger groups
created new sub-groups for this ISO scene.
By 1998 the ISO scene had grown. Gone were the days groups
would dupe each others titles on different sites and not
even realise it. Also gone where multistandards in releases.
The scene may have been called ISO because that was the
original format people used to store the information with but
by 1998 everyone had switched to the bin/cue format. Also
strangely we discovered in 1998 that some big name rip groups
couldn't hack it in this ISO scene. While some others who
fared terrible in the rip scene flourished in with ISOs.
Probably the biggest controversy in the ISO scene for this year
was whether groups should rip out Direct X etc to fit the image
onto a standard 74min CD or weather to leave it as a full
80+minutes (which required special CDs to burn properly).
Bruce Sterling. The Hacker Crackdown, 1992. ISBN 0-553-56370-X
Insane Creator Enterprises. Insanity, 1991.
Reality. Reality Check Network, 1996.
Steve 'Toast'. NFO Archive, 1995-98. http://www.uoguelph.ca/~shost/mail/mail.html
Revision IV (200499)
Scene History Composition, © Copyright 1998-9 by Ipggi of Defacto2, All Rights Reserved.